1. Compound Epicycles.
A series of arms of equal length are connected end-to-end. Each arm spins at a constant rate, indicated by the ratios in the captions. A pen has been attached at the end of each arm.
The term “epicycle” refers to the old astronomical models that used wheels-within-wheels to approximate the motions of the stars. As you can see, such relationships can create quite complicated motion, indeed!
Here’s what the gifs looks like without tumblr’s gif limits.
Written in processing, then ported over to as3 for easier layering.